Backyard Chickens

Chickens, Chicken Coop, Grid, Chicken

Not sure how to have chickens in your backyard? Having chickens in backyard is starting to become more and more normal now daily. I see them constantly in my city which was one of the reasons I decided to give it a go. So do you have a specific reason as to why you want to have chicken in you backyard? Most people who I speak to want them to have organic and free range chicken eggs and they prefer to raise chickens. Other I know raised them as pets and some use them as a meat source. Whatever your reasons are, I will try and assist you raise and manage backyard chickens.

The Way to Have Chickens in Your Backyard

Okay, since you’re wondering how to have chickens, I am gonna assume you don’t know that raising chickens can actually be illegal if you’re in certain towns. So check these out first before you move on to anything else.

The Way to Have Baby Chicks On Your Backyard

They are quite inexpensive. When they arrive just make sure they stay warm inside a brooding pen, which is basically a smaller chicken coop. When first starting out turn the temperature at 95 degree F and you need to then reduce it by 5 degrees each week until it is just like ambient temperature.

The Way to have Chickens in Your backyard and How to Safeguard them – Adult

If you’re thinking about having adult chickens you’re likely to need to protect them from getting attacked by building them a coop or buying one that is already produced. When choosing a coop or when you build one, make sure the windows on the coop face the sun. You will save money by allowing the sun heat up the coop instead of using electric lighting. You also want to be certain that the coop is sturdy enough to withstand storms and windy days. So be sure construct a high quality coop or buy one.

Can I Prefer, A Pre-Built Coop or one I built my self?

In my personally opinion, if I only have a few chickens, I like to construct a chicken coop on my own. why? Mainly because it is a heck of a lot cheaper and I enjoy building things. I like being able to customize the coops in the why I want them built. This isn’t for everybody though, If you do not like building things and not really good with instrument I would recommend buying a pre-assembled coop.

I hope that you understand a bit more on the way to have chickens in your backyard. The first issue is to see if you’re even allowed, figure out if you want chicks or adults, and buy or build a chicken coop.

Catnip

I didn’t have a cat growing up, so everything I know about cats I have learned since getting our first cat a few years back. Cats are weird little creatures and have inspired me to read and observe as much as I can. 1 thing that got my interest early on was that some people are afraid to give their cats catnip since they’re worried they will become raging drug addicts. Most cats are already raging food lovers (or at least mine is), so I would be worried too if I thought catnip would add to his list of requirements. Fortunately, anybody with a computer can find everything they need to know about catnip and how it works.

Here is a super quick sciencey rundown:

When smelled, the active ingredient, nepetalactone, stimulates the olfactory bulb which then stimulates the nervous system in 50-75% of cats over the age of 8 weeks. The effects can last up to 15 minutes and contains an hour refractory period where the cat can’t be stimulated further.

Mkay… So, I will see how observation can tell us that the cat is enjoying a sense of euphoria following catnip stimulation, but how do we know they’re hallucinating? People have been using catnip for centuries and I found a huge list of”common” applications of catnip which range from easing toothaches to recreational usage that might help explain why your grandma has such a huge stash in her basement.

Catnip was used for people with”nervous problems”. Catnip tea and infusions had a calming effect and were used to treat headaches, hysteria, and insanity. Though, it was said that chewing the origin had an opposite effect, stimulating people into a type of rage.

Catnip for Women’s Health

Catnip was used to assist in women’s fertility. It was used to increase the flow of menstruation (honestly, why??) , assisted in childbirth, promoted afterbirth, and a moist mash of catnip was used to ease sore breasts from nursing.

Catnip for Baby

Catnip was used to relieve colic in infants. It was also believed to relieve gassiness and the hiccups. Overdoses were reported to cause convulsions and fell out of favor.

Catnip to fix what ails you

Catnip mash was used to alleviate toothaches, tonsillitis, and hemorrhoid pain. It was a common cold remedy, hive reducer, and was used to both cool a feverish body and to stimulate sweating. It was a common pain reliever for arthritis by reducing swelling.

Catnip was smoked in an attempt to relieve respiratory issues, like tuberculosis and pneumonia.

Catnip in the 60’s

I bet you get the idea already, but catnip was commonly utilised in the 60’s as a recreational drug. It had been used in place of and as a filler for bud.

Chocolate Facts

Chocolate, Shaving, Chopped Chocolate

There are so many weird and wonderful fun facts about chocolate, it’s difficult to know which to include and which to omit due to space considerations.

To start with, the Mayans used cacao beans as currency as they believed that they were more precious than gold dust. They controlled the production of beans in order that their currency wouldn’t depreciate in value.

White chocolate isn’t strictly speaking chocolate. We have been labouring under a misapprehension for several years. Chocolate must contain cocoa solids, but white chocolate doesn’t have any in it.

Europeans are the biggest fans of chocolate, accounting for the consumption of nearly half of the chocolate that’s produced globally.

Where was the largest chocolate bar produced? From the UK; it was made by Thornton’s because of its centenary.

Toblerone is so popular that when the number of bars sold each year were to be placed end to end, they would stretch to 62,000km. That is more than the Earth’s circumference.

Chocolate contains theobromine which s a really powerful stimulant. If you consume a lot of it, it may prove fatal. However, you would need to eat around 22 pounds of the stuff in one sitting, which is not really possible. Theobromine poisoning causes seizures, heart failure, dehydration, and acute kidney damage.

Chocolate chip cookies, adored by many around the world, came into being due to an accident which happened in 1930. Ruth Wakefield ran out of cooking chocolate, but undeterred she used pieces of chocolate in her biscuit dough. The chocolate she used was Nestles, and she sold her recipe to the firm in return for a life’s supply of chocolate.

A pound of chocolate comprises 400 cocoa beans and a cacao tree will create around 2,500 beans. These trees are delicate and cocoa farmers lose about 30 percent of their crop each year.

Early people fermented the pods of the cacao beans to make drinks other than chocolate.

These were served in a golden chalice.

Each November in Germany, people celebrate Saint Martin’s Day with sweets and mugs of steaming hot chocolate.

Write It Down

Woman, Girl, Freedom, Happy, Sun
How often have I told myself the exact same thing?
Writing something down has been demonstrated to be an effective memorization technique. It’s also the secret to the past that can help shape your future – and I do mean shape your own future. To know where you are going, it helps to know where you are coming from. Irrespective of how much fish oil or ginkgo you require, it is far-fetched to expect you will remember every set, rep, mile and nuance of your last workout or the one before that.
Why do you want to recall what you’ve already done? Same reason people write down recipes: to boost the odds of success the next time you are in that circumstance.
And I am not speaking only sets and reps. In reality, anything which affects your senses can impact your workout, even in the event that you’ve mastered the way to block out distractions. Recreating a scenario in which you are able to tune out those nuisance raises the potential for a favorable gym experience. Control what you can, have a backup plan for what you can not and ignore the rest.
Food and supplement intake, including quality, quantity and time, also impacts your exercise, so make a few notes. In the fitness center, temperature, light, music, accessibility to the equipment you’ll need, the gym’s design and how busy it is are all variables in your workout. Things you discovered on a specific day that influenced your training, good or bad, are worth jotting down.
After a time, taking notes will become second nature – a frequent occurrence in your day-to-day workouts. It doesn’t need to be prose; it may be bullet points. The next time you are in a slump, reverse back to a terrific work out and see why it worked. Draw from that adventure. It will not always work, but it may mean the difference between a bad day, week or even month. If you exploit creativity with discipline, you can make a masterpiece.

Lawn Care Myths

Tulips, Bloom, Blossom, Colorful

When it comes to lawn care, homeowners sometimes fall for myths surrounding them. Despite the availability of information from blogs, magazines and even from companies specializing in lawn care, people still cling to these myths that can adversely impact the quality of a yard. A number of these myths might be well-meaning but studies suggest that these can hurt your lawn and observing these do not provide any value.

What are these myths about lawn care you should watch for?

  1. All grasses are the same. Contrary to the belief held by some individuals, there are lots of varieties of grasses, each with its own set of requirements when it comes to irrigation, mowing and upkeep. Taking into consideration these differences will allow you to take better care of your lawn and help you choose the suitable equipment.
  2. You might think that shaving a considerable amount off the leaf blades of the grass will interpret to time savings and less effort. If you cut the grass too short, you might pay the price later on in the form of stressed grass that won’t grow optimally.
  3. Bagging the clippings. Some property owners believe that it is best to bag grass clippings after each mowing session. However, by doing this, you’re missing a few of the benefits that leaving grass clippings on the lawn can offer. Leaving grass clippings on the lawn helps return vital nutrients into the soil as they decompose. If you decide to bag grass clippings, set aside some of these for composting.
  4. Focus your attention on the grass. Another common myth about lawn care is that you should concentrate your time and effort on the grass. Make sure that it is tested regularly to let you choose the best fertilizer.
  5. You can take it easy during winter. As your lawn becomes blanketed in snow, you can take a rest from your usual lawn care tasks. However, you should take advantage of the time by keeping your tools and gear. For example, you can look over your lawn mower and assess whether it needs sharper blades or missing components. Come spring time, you’ll be ready to go back to your regular lawn maintenance tasks.

Picking Patio Furniture

Chairs, Garden, Seat, Furniture, Outdoor

The weather appears to have taken a turn for the better over the last week or so with spring and summer finally on the horizon! It is now of the year that we begin to pull our garden furniture from storage, baffled by how it has managed to fall to ruin in just a year! Now that the sun is shining and temperatures are rising, it’s the best time to start thinking about upgrading our garden furniture.

However big or small your outdoor space is, it’s inevitable that you will be searching for someplace to sit comfortably this summer. Benches are the perfect way to create a focal point in your garden, adding a particularly dramatic look when put under a tree or facing your beautiful flower bed. There are a range of different styles available, with romantic metalwork and traditional wooden structures all possible choices. The ensuing months are about enjoying the outdoors and taking advantage of nature, so what better way to enjoy the sun than by catching a fantastic book and reclining in your perfectly positioned bench!

Garden furniture is not commonly associated with being the most comfy chairs in the world, due to the need for durability, however there are several ways to design your garden bench so as to improve this. Outdoor cushions and blankets can help add to the aesthetics but also result in a more relaxing and pleasant experience altogether!

The development of waterproof textile designs has caused a great gain in the amount of different styles and shapes available on the market. It is common to adhere to safer options when accessorising bits of furniture, with solid and neutral colours proving to be popular picks! However I need to assure you that being creative and quirky is not at all a bad thing. In fact, it’s a celebrated trend to try and incorporate a variety of different patterns and colors to make an eye-catching and alternative appearance. Additionally it is a great way to bring a little bit of your personality to the fore. Another valuable tip, if you’re uncertain of what route to take, is to use a mixture of neutral and solid coloured cushions along with a few patterned scatter cushions of your choice. This is a more conventional approach and will also make any chair/bench/swing look like it’s straight from an interior design magazine.

Most garden pieces are built to last but with the British weather often proving unpredictable it might also be a smart move to invest in a tarpaulin cover, or something similar, to help protect your furniture throughout the harsher months of the year. This will get rid of the necessity to store your outdoor chairs, benches, tables etc. indoors during fall and winter.

Picking the right Patio Contracter

Outside, Lifestyle, Patio, Porch, Summer

Spring has finally come, with the chance for outdoor parties and parties – it is time to get a patio installer to expand your outdoor living space while enhancing your garden.

It’s worth starting early… careful planning will take time as you might want to decide on designs and products. Good installers are often booked up in advance and will have to incorporate your new patio into their schedules.

If you have decided that a patio would be a welcome addition to your home, your toughest decision may be choosing the perfect contractor to handle the project. While there are many options to select from, it’s crucial that you select a builder that offers the right mix of products, service, and quality. By way of instance, you want to make sure the patio installer you choose has a reputation for doing the job right. Other factors to consider when Choosing a contractor include:

Products – Ask what materials are offered for a patio. A pro will provide concrete, brick, stone, and pavers. If you select pavers, ensure your contractor buys them from a reputable manufacturer, as inferior pavers will fade and frequently are less durable.

Warranties & Guarantees – Ask if the contractor guarantee their work, and if there are warranties on the goods (usually pavers) talk about the specifics until you know them and have both the warranty and warranty spelled out in writing.

Sites with Portfolios – Top pros have websites that help educate the general public about hardscaping issues such as the advantages and disadvantages of different materials used for patios.

Professional Organizations & Continued Education – search for a contractor who belongs to professional organizations like New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association (NJLCA) that promote professionalism, safety, environmental protection, and education.

Local Knowledge – Many communities have specific codes and restrictions for patio additions-choose a contractor experienced in navigating these constraints and regulations to create the sort of patio that meets your needs and wants.

When choosing a professional to lay your terrace, you should have a practical approach prior to making your decision. Ask straightforward questions and try to find some simple support. Here are some helpful tips on what you need to ask before your dream garden project begins:

Get some different quotes for your project, checking they include all the services and products you will need. Make sure there are no hidden extras like soil removal. Suggestion: Ask how long the job will last.
Ask for a few recent references of finished patio setup and read their online reviews. A reputable contractor will be enthusiastic about showing off recent work. Expect to see photos and details of recent, similar work which you can visit for a reference. This is usually part of any professional presentation.
Ask questions such as if the cost of a dumpster and jointing sand is included?
Check whether the contractor has the appropriate liability insurance.
Ask for a final written quote from your favorite contractor.
A reputable patio installer won’t cut corners but work to the maximum standard to build a patio that is beautiful and will stay that way for years to come.
Starting with fundamental research and asking the correct questions will help ensure that you opt for a trusted and reliable contractor. You want your garden and patio project to be completed to the highest standard; something you, your loved ones and friends can enjoy for many years to come.

Anyone with a pad and pen can design a patio-remember building the appropriate base, drainage and beautifully laying paving products is a skill and an art. A professional terrace installer in can recommend colors, complementary products, suitable laying patterns and a lot more, so it’s worth investing in a reputable one – remember to ask to see their portfolios. They will listen and asks questions until they fully understand their customer’s needs and wants. The master patio builder will subsequently enhance their client’s dreams as they design their patio that matches their customer’s desires.

  
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Spring has finally come, with the opportunity for outdoor parties and parties – it’s time to find a patio installer to expand your outdoor living space while enhancing your garden.

It is worth starting early… careful preparation will take some time as you will want to decide on designs and products. Great installers are often booked up in advance and will need to incorporate your new patio in their schedules.

If you’ve decided that a patio would be a welcome addition to your house, your toughest decision may be choosing the right contractor to deal with the project. While there are many options to pick from, it’s imperative that you select a contractor who offers the ideal combination of products, service, and quality. For instance, you want to make sure the patio installer you pick has a reputation for doing the job correctly. Other factors to consider when selecting a contractor include:

Products – inquire what materials are offered for a patio. A pro will offer concrete, brick, rock, and pavers. If you select pavers, make sure that your contractor buys them from a reputable manufacturer, as inferior pavers will fade and frequently are not as durable.

Warranties & Guarantees – Ask if the contractor guarantee their work, and if there are warranties on the products (usually pavers) discuss the specifics until you understand them and have the guarantee and warranty spelled out in writing.

Sites with Portfolios – Top pros have sites that help educate the general public about hardscaping issues like the pros and cons of different materials used for patios. The consummate professionals will as have portfolios for you to peruse to see their work and what different elements look like so that you can make an educated decision regarding your patio.

Professional Organizations & Profession Education – Look for a contractor who belongs to professional organizations such as New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association (NJLCA) that encourage professionalism, security, environmental protection, and education.

Local Knowledge – Many communities have particular codes and restrictions for patio additions-choose a contractor experienced in navigating these constraints and regulations to produce the type of terrace that meets your needs and wants.

When choosing a professional to lay your terrace, you should take a practical approach prior to making your decision. Ask straightforward questions and try to find some basic support. Here are some helpful hints on what you need to ask before your dream garden project begins:

Get some different quotes for your project, checking that they include all the products and services you’ll need. Ensure there are no hidden extras like soil removal. Suggestion: Ask how long the job will last.
Assess how long the company has been laying paving solutions.
Ask for some recent references of completed patio installation and read their reviews that are online. A reputable contractor will be enthusiastic about showing off recent work. Expect to see photos and details of recent, similar function which you may visit for a reference.
Ask questions like if the cost of a dumpster and jointing sand is included?
Check whether the contractor has the proper liability insurance.
Ask for a final written quote from your favorite contractor.
A reputable patio installer will not cut corners but work to the highest standard to build a patio that’s beautiful and will stay that way for years to come. A true professional will have no problem guaranteeing their work.
Starting with basic research and asking the correct questions will help ensure that you opt for a trustworthy and reliable contractor.

Anyone with a pad and pencil can design a patio-remember building the appropriate foundation, drainage and beautifully laying paving products is a skill and an art. A professional patio installer in can recommend colors, complementary products, suitable laying patterns and a lot more, so it’s well worth investing in a reputable one – remember to ask to see their portfolios. The master terrace builder will subsequently enhance their customer’s visions as they design their patio which matches their customer’s desires.

Manga Carta and the Constitution

Constitution, 4Th Of July, July 4Th

The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, is a charter drawn by English noblemen guaranteeing certain English rights and defining English civil and political liberties. It was signed by seal of King John of England on June 15, 1215 in an attempt to guarantee the continuing loyalty of the nobility. While Pope Innocent III nullified the arrangement 10 months later, the document was reissued with alterations in 1216, 1217 and 1225. In 1297, Edward I entered the Magna Carta into the statues of this realm, which makes it the first entry on the statute books. While the Magna Carta was initially meant to protect only the rights of noblemen, it was finally extended to commoners and served as the basis for English Common Law.

The Magna Carta included 63 exemptions which served to cover the main problems affecting England during the reign of King John including inheritance; debts and the payment after death; the administration of justice; the levying of taxes; woods, riverbanks and river weirs; and freedom of commerce and travel amongst others. While the Magna Carta wasn’t originally numbered or divided into separate clauses, a numbering system was supplied by Sir William Blackstone, in 1759 in a published edition of the 1215 version of the Magna Carta.

The statute that had remained dormant for several years was revived by Sir Edward Coke in the seventeenth century. Coke served as attorney general for Queen Elizabeth I, chief justice of the King’s Bench for King James I, and as both attorney general and speaker of the House of Commons. Coke touted the Magna Carta as authority for challenging the Stuart kings’ claims of royal prerogative and he interpreted the Magna Carta as an affirmation of the principles of human liberties and as a statement of English rights held since antiquity. The importance that Sir Edward Coke attributed to the Magna Carta was reflected in the legislation of the colonies and his interpretation led to the claim of the inviolability of a person’s right to due process of law.

Englishmen who came to the American colonies believed they were entitled to the rights of Englishmen embodied in the Magna Carta and as defined in the English Common Law, and it was upon this frame that the colonists started to build the laws of the land and assert their liberty in the English Crown.

When framing their State Constitutions, nearly all the original colonies comprised a statement of their basic rights and liberties of man. While the Constitution of 1789 embodied various declarations of the basic rights of men, it did not include a formal Bill of Rights, such as that included in the State Constitutions. Intense debate over the need for a declarative statement outlining the rights of citizens ensued. As a result, Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the Constitution of America.

The Bill of Rights, passed in 1789, and put in effect in 1791, secures the crucial rights and liberties of the individual citizen and restricts the government’s power in judicial proceedings. A number of these rights and liberties, in addition to the theory of representative government, the idea of a supreme law, and the notion of judicial review descend from an eighteenth-century understanding of the Magna Carta.

Freedom of Religion:

The English concept of freedom of the church served as the foundation for our First Amendment guarantee of freedom of religion. The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States provides that”Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…” Similarly, Clause 1 of the Magna Carta provides”That the English Church shall be free and shall have her whole rights and her liberties inviolable…” Clauses 62 and 63, which were omitted from the subsequent reissues of the Magna Carta, also reaffirm the freedom of the Church.

Due Process:

The idea of due process was expanded to include the right to bear arms (Second Amendment) and to not be subject to cruel and unusual punishment (Eighth Amendment).

Due process, derived from Clause 39 of the Magna Carta, deals with the administration of justice and the rights of individuals.

Clause 39 guarantees that the administration of justice shall be according to”the laws of this land.” While the idea of”law of the land” isn’t defined in the Magna Carta, it has over time come to mean the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers, the right to confront one’s accusers, and the right to appeal.

The term”due process of law” first substituted the stage”the law of the land” in 1354 in a statute restating the Magna Carta’s procedural claims. It’s this guarantee that is embodied in the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.

Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution also includes a similar provision. That guide, known as the Suspension Clause, provides that”the privilege of the writ habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.” It should also be noted that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868, also contains a due process clause.

The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to”all persons born or naturalized in the United States” and prohibit states from denying any individual”life, liberty or property, without due process of law” or denying”any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The provisions of the Fifth Amendment were introduced as a check upon the national government while those enunciated in the Fourteenth Amendment were directed towards the individual states in the Union. Taken together, but both amendments ensure that the individual’s right to life, liberty and property remain inviolate vis a vis both the state and national government.

The concept of making sure that the individual’s right to life, liberty and property remained inviolate vis a vis government is further exemplified in the Ninth Amendment to the Constitution wherein it is stipulated that”the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” Clearly, the framers of the Constitution meant that the rights that they held prior to the framing of the Constitution, such as those claimed from the Magna Carta, were never lost nor limited by the Constitution.

As previously noted, Clause 39 of the Magna Carta contains the assurance that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers.” The intent at the time was to induce the king to relinquish judicial authority to peers of the person on trial. Thus, while the Magna Carta didn’t contemplate the jury system that we have in the United States, it did serve as its inspiration. The colonists viewed the right to a jury trial because of an important liberty and a basic safeguard of freedom from arbitrary government. Hence the notion espoused in Clause 39 that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers” was integrated in the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Thus, similar to Clause 39, the Sixth Amendment guarantees a trial by a jury comprised of fellow citizens.

Clause 40 of the Magna Carta states that”to no-one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay, right or justice.” This idea of swift justice can be reflected in the Sixth Amendment in the guarantee that”the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial.”

While the Sixth Amendment secured a right to a jury trial in criminal cases, it did not apply to civil cases. The Seventh Amendment, however, was created to ensure a jury trial in civil cases. The Seventh Amendment mandates that”in suits at common law where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the principles of the common law.”

The rights sought by the barons in 1215, as defined in the Magna Carta, not only found their way to the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, but these essential rights can also be found in the jury instructions issued by Judge to jury in america. That is, these rights can be seen in the terms presumption of innocence and burden of proof.

No Trial without credible witnesses

Clause 38 of the Magna Carta, afterwards re-numbered 29, provides that”No bailiff, for the future, shall put any man to his law, upon his own simple affirmation, without credible witnesses created for the purpose.” Clause 38’s requirement that no man be put to trial without witnesses found its way into the Sixth Amendment in the guarantee that”the accused shall enjoy the right… to be confronted with the witnesses against him.” In our judicial system, however, it is for the jury to determine the credibility of a witness.

During the reign of King John, there existed a concern regarding the severity of the punishment to be rendered. Thus Clause 20 of the Magna Carta was written to make sure that”A free-man shall not be fined for a small offence, but only according to the degree of the offence; and for a excellent delinquency, according to the magnitude of the delinquency, saving his contentment… and none of the aforesaid fines shall be assessed, but by the oath of honest men of the vicinage.” To ensure that punishments were not overly excessive, Clause 20 mandated that the punishment be in line with the gravity of the offense. This same principle is expressed in our Eighth Amendment from the guarantee that”Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.”

The Theory of Representative Government:

The longest clause of the Magna Carta, Clause 61, called the security clause, was the most critical clause affecting King John in 1215. Clause 61 provided that a committee of 25 barons could meet anytime and overrule the will of the King, by force if necessary, if he defied the terms of the Charter, and they could seize his possessions and castles. As this was the first time that such a practice was forced upon a ruling monarch, Clause 61 was a severe challenge to King John’s authority. Not surprisingly, Clause 61 was omitted from all later reissues of the Magna Carta.

Clause 61 provides in part that”… since we have given all these things… we being desirous that these things should have entire and unshaken stability for ever, give and grant to them the security underwritten; namely the Barons may select twenty-five Barons of the kingdom, whom they please, who shall with their whole power, observe, keep, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties which we have given to them, and have confirmed by this our present charter… And if we will not have redresses… the twenty-five Barons… shall distress… us… from the taking of our castles, lands, and possessions…”

Throughout the time of the Tudors, the Magna Carta served as a foundation for establishing the first Parliament to assist in enforcing the rights claimed by law. Afterwards, in Elizabethan times, the Magna Carta was utilized to establish the antiquity of Parliament.

The primary importance of Clause 61 is that it laid the framework for the simple form of government in both England and in the USA. In this regard, the twenty-five baron committee was representative of what would later become Parliament and a balance to the King’s power. In turn, the English governmental system of Monarch, Commons, and Lords provided the legal foundation for our system of two houses of Congress and the Presidency. The framers of the Constitution were influenced by the constitutional relationship between the Monarch, Commons and Lords in the British governmental system and it’s from this system that the legal basis for both houses of Congress and the Presidency, as well as the idea of checks and balances, was created. The legislative, executive and judicial branches of the government, along with the system of checks and balances, are based in the first few articles of this Constitution.

For the framers of the Constitution, the checks and balances that functioned between the three branches of government were a means to protect against any single branch from overreaching and exceeding its powers. Therefore, the Constitution and the Magna Carta were ready with the same intent in mind. Both files limit government by requiring entry to the law and by requiring recognition of the rights of taxpayers.

The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.” Therefore, the Tenth Amendment makes it clear that our national government possesses only those powers granted to it by the Constitution. The states, however, have all powers which the Constitution neither delegates to our national government nor prohibits the states from working; said otherwise, all powers not expressly delegated to the federal government nor denied to the states, remain with the states or the public.

Idea of a Supreme Law

The Magna Carta has also been credited with providing the foundation for the idea of a higher law. In this regard, it’s considered a superior law such that even kings must be subject to the law, and any attempt to invalidate it need not be respected. The concept that the Magna Carta provided the basis for the idea of a higher law is embedded in Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution. Thus the Supremacy Clause mandates that the Constitution together with all treaties and all national laws made in pursuance of this Constitution represents the”supreme law of the land” in the United States. The Supremacy Clause further mandates that all judges in most countries are bound by this”supreme law of the land,” and that the state courts must refuse to uphold any state law that’s contrary to the”supreme law of the land.” This concept of a supreme law, embedded in the supremacy clause, is enforced by the Supreme Court.

Judicial Review

Clauses 39 and 40, discussed above, also act as a foundation for the idea of judicial review. It’s through judicial review that our courts interpret the meaning and intent of legislation.